Blockchain can Play a Role in Scientific Research

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Trust in scientific research has suffered in the age of the Internet as more and more cases are cropping up where it’s clear that that data is being manipulated. According to a recent paper on the potential of Blockchain in Academia, UK doctors Greg Irving, GP and NIHR Clinical Lecturer at the University of Cambridge and John Holden General Practitioner, Garswood Surgery, St. Helens, Lancashire write they feel that time-stamped Blockchain protocols could improve the trustworthiness of medical science .  

Outcome switching, data dredging and selective publication are some of the problems that undermine the integrity of published research. Here we report a proof-of-concept study  using a ‘Blockchain’ as a low cost, independently verifiable method that could be widely and readily used to audit and confirm the reliability of scientific studies.

In their proof-of-concept study they used publicly available documentation from a recently reported randomized control trial. A copy of the study protocol was prepared based on it’s pre-specified endpoints and planned analyses which was saved as an unformatted text file (Dataset 1). The document’s SHA256 digest for the text was then calculated by entering text from the trial protocol into an SHA256 calculator (Xorbin). This was then converted into a bitcoin private key and corresponding public key using a bitcoin wallet. To do this a new account was created in Strongcoin and the SHA256 digest used as the account password (private key). From this Strongcoin automatically generated a corresponding Advanced Encryption Standard 256 bit public key. An arbitrary amount of bitcoin was then sent to a corresponding bitcoin address. To verify the existence of the document a second researcher was sent the originally prepared unformatted document. An SHA256 digest was created as previously described and a corresponding private key and public key generated. The exact replication of the public key was then used to prove the documents existence in the Bitcoin Blockchain using The protocol document was then edited to reflect any changes to pre-specified outcomes as reported by the COMPare group. This was used to create a further SHA256 and corresponding public and private keys.

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The result?

Incorporating a transaction into the Blockchain using a public and private key generated from the SHA256 digest of the trial protocol provided a timestamped record that the protocol was at least as old as the transaction generated. The transaction took under five minutes to complete. The process cost was free as the nominal bitcoin transaction could be retrieved. Researchers were able to search for the transaction on the Blockchain, confirm the date when the transaction occurred and verify the authenticity of the original protocol by generating identical public and private keys. Any changes made to the original document generated different public and private keys indicating that protocol had been altered. This included assessment of the edited protocol reflecting pre-specified outcomes not reported or non-pre-specified outcomes now reported in the final paper.

Which can be seen here.

About Richard Kastelein

Founder and publisher of industry publication Blockchain News (EST
2015), a partner at ICO services collective Token.Agency
($750m+ and 90+ ICOs and STOs), director of education company
Blockchain Partners
(Oracle Partner) and ICO event organiser
at leading industry event CryptoFinancing (Europe's first ICO event now
branded Tokenomicon)
– Vancouver native Richard Kastelein is an award-winning publisher,
innovation executive and entrepreneur. He sits on the advisory boards
of some two dozen Blockchain startups and has written over 1500
articles on Blockchain technology and startups at Blockchain News and
has also published pioneering articles on ICOs in Harvard Business Review and Venturebeat.  Irish Tech News put him in the top
10 Token Architects in Europe.

Kastelein has an Ad Honorem - Honorary Ph.D. and is Chair Professor of
at China's first Blockchain University in Nanchang
at the Jiangxi Ahead Institute of Software and Technology. In 2018 he
was invited to and attended University of Oxford's Saïd Business School
for Business Automation 4.0 programme. Chevalier (Knight) - Ordre des
Arts et des Technologies at Crypto Chain University and an Advisory
Board Member of International Decentralized Association Of
Cryptocurrency And Blockchain (IDABC) as well as Advisory Board Member
at U.S. Blockchain Association. Over a half a decade experience judging
and rewarding some 1000+ innovation projects as an EU expert for the
European Commission's SME Instrument programme as a startup assessor
and as a startup judge for the UK government's Innovate UK division.

Kastelein has spoken (keynotes & panels) on Blockchain
technology in Amsterdam, Antwerp, Barcelona, Beijing, Brussels,
Bucharest, Dubai, Eindhoven, Gdansk, Groningen, the Hague, Helsinki,
London (5x), Manchester, Minsk, Nairobi, Nanchang, San Mateo, San
Francisco, Santa Clara (2x), Shanghai, Singapore (3x), Tel
Aviv,  Utrecht, Venice,  Visakhapatnam, Zwolle and
Zurich.  His network is global and extensive.

He is a Canadian (Dutch/Irish/English/Métis) whose writing career has
ranged from the Canadian Native Press (Arctic) to the Caribbean
& Europe. He's written occasionally for Harvard Business
Review, Wired, Venturebeat, The Guardian and, and his work
and ideas have been translated into Dutch, Greek, Polish, German and
French. A journalist by trade, an entrepreneur and adventurer at heart,
Kastelein's professional career has ranged from political publishing to
TV technology, boatbuilding to judging startups, skippering yachts to
marketing and more as he's travelled for nearly 30 years as a Canadian
expatriate living around the world. In his 20s, he sailed around the
world on small yachts and wrote a series of travel articles called,
"The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Seas' travelling by hitching rides on
yachts (1989) in major travel and yachting publications. He currently
lives in Groningen, Netherlands where he's raising three teenage
daughters with his wife and sailing partner, Wieke Beenen.

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